During the three centuries of its existence, this council enacted a massive amount of legislation, though much grew obsolete and became a dead letter. Portugal could claim and occupy everything to the east of the line and Spain everything to the west though no one then knew where the demarcation would bisect the other side of the globe.
The Portuguese at first practiced Indian slavery in Brazil and continued to employ it partially until The Spanish forces exploited the rivalries between competing local peoples and states, some of which were only too willing to form alliances with the Spanish in order to defeat their more-powerful enemies, such as the Aztecs or Incas - a tactic that later European colonial powers would use extensively.
The pivot of the controversy is the degree to which the new imperialism was the product of primarily economic forces and in particular whether it was a necessary attribute of the capitalist system.
In control was a board of 17 directors, the so-called Heeren XVII, who received a monopoly of navigational rights eastward around the Cape of Good Hope and westward through the Strait of Magellan. The Peace of Barcelona, signed between Charles and the Pope inestablished a more cordial relationship between the two leaders.
The Molasses Act of was in the interest of the British West Indian sugar growers, who complained of the amount of French island molasses imported by the mainland colonies; the French planters had been buying fish, livestock, and lumber brought by North American ships and gladly exchanging their sugar products for them at low prices.
Some were indentured, or contract, servants; some were redemptioners who agreed to pay ship captains their passage fees within a stated time or be sold to bidders; others were convicts. The fact that they had apparently not been introduced to Christianity, or the other two monotheistic religions of the Old World, called into question other aspects of the Bible narrative and of Christian doctrine.
Rather, these empires expanded through the more traditional route of conquest of neighbouring territories. The first American troops in Cuba were poorly trained and equipped, had inadequate and low quality food, equipment, medicine, and supplies. The Chinese capitulated in after the fleet reached the Yangtze, Shanghai fell, and Nanking was under British guns.
The late Middle Ages saw reforms in accountancy and banking in Italy and the eastern Mediterranean. The British therefore now favoured independence for these colonies and had little interest in helping to reimpose colonial rule, with its accompanying limitations on British trade and investment.
Conquest of India Apart from reforms of this nature, the aftermath of American independence was a diversion of British imperial interests to other areas—the beginning of the settlement of Australia being a case in point.
Inthe king of France Francis I announced his unprecedented alliance with the Ottoman sultan, Suleiman the Magnificentby occupying the Spanish-controlled city of Nice in concert with Ottoman forces.
Financially, local trade monopoly was even more important than the expulsion of white competitors. Military spending expanded, usually leading to an " imperial overreach ", and imperialism created clients of ruling elites abroad that were brutal and corrupt, consolidating power through imperial rents and impeding social change and economic development that ran against their ambitions.
The Scottish four-stage theory was the most notable example of this. Don Balthasar encouraged Philip to join the Austrian Habsburgs in the war, and Spinola, the rising star of the Spanish army in the Netherlands, was sent at the head of the Army of Flanders to intervene.
Furthermore, over the years there occurred a decided shift in the composition of demand for goods produced in the colonial areas. As British sovereignty spread, new land-revenue devices were soon instituted, which resulted in raising the revenue to finance the consolidation of power in India and the conquest of other regions, breaking up the old system of self-sufficient and self-perpetuating villages and supporting an elite whose self-interests would harmonize with British rule.
Portugal remained theoretically independent, bound only by a personal union to its neighbour; but succeeding Spanish monarchs steadily encroached on its liberties until the small kingdom became, in effect, a conquered province.
IMPERIALISM, COLONIALISM, AND DECOLONIZATION. The colonial expansion of European states into the Americas, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, followed by the collapse of these empires and their replacement by sovereign nation-states, is a double movement of great historical importance.
American Expansion Overseas Imperialism.
Imperialism: the policy of establishing colonies and building empires for economic gain, national prestige, and religious or missionary purposes. European powers of the 's and 's (Great Britain, France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Portugal) long ago started building their colonies.
An exploration of the nature and history of capitalism. Global capitalism, colonies and Third-World economic realities. This article reconstructs the expansion of Europe overseas and the multiple forms of encounters between European navigators, explorers, conquerors, colonizers, merchants and missionaries and 'other' peoples and cultures over the course of four centuries.
New agricultural products contributed to economic independence of the colonies, although the producers again got little for their efforts.
Mining also produced great profits but disrupted family life for tens of thousands of miners.
European power in Africa, although appearing strong, depended on African-based armies and thus remained fragile. The great discoveries helped to revolutionize the economy and society of Europe. In the long process of inflation and expansion, some groups gained and others lost.
In general, merchants, financiers, and business people enjoyed a rising standard of living.European powers obtained colonies overseas for their economic expansion